Continuo da qui; adesso entriamo nel merito dice Jake, qui.

Up until now, we have been discussing some of the basic nuts and bolts of NumPy; in the next few sections, we will dive into the reasons that NumPy is so important in the Python data science world. Namely, it provides an easy and flexible interface to optimized computation with arrays of data.

Computation on NumPy arrays can be very fast, or it can be very slow. The key to making it fast is to use vectorized operations, generally implemented through NumPy’s universal functions (ufuncs). This section motivates the need for NumPy’s ufuncs, which can be used to make repeated calculations on array elements much more efficient. It then introduces many of the most common and useful arithmetic ufuncs available in the NumPy package.

**La lentezza dei cicli**

Python’s default implementation (known as CPython) does some operations very slowly. This is in part due to the dynamic, interpreted nature of the language […]. Recently there have been various attempts to address this weakness: PyPy, Cython and Numba. Each of these has its strengths and weaknesses, but it is safe to say that none of the three approaches has yet surpassed the reach and popularity of the standard CPython engine.

The relative sluggishness of Python generally manifests itself in situations where many small operations are being repeated – for instance looping over arrays to operate on each element. For example, imagine we have an array of values and we’d like to compute the reciprocal of each. A straightforward approach might look like this:

This implementation probably feels fairly natural to someone from, say, a C or Java background. But if we measure the execution time of this code for a large input, we see that this operation is very slow, perhaps surprisingly so! We’ll benchmark this with IPython’s ** %timeit** magic (discussed in Profiling and Timing Code):

It takes several seconds [*ahemmm*, più di 1] to compute these million operations and to store the result! When even cell phones have processing speeds measured in Giga-FLOPS (i.e., billions of numerical operations per second), this seems almost absurdly slow. It turns out that the bottleneck here is not the operations themselves, but the type-checking and function dispatches that CPython must do at each cycle of the loop. Each time the reciprocal is computed, Python first examines the object’s type and does a dynamic lookup of the correct function to use for that type. If we were working in compiled code instead, this type specification would be known before the code executes and the result could be computed much more efficiently.

**Introduco le UFuncs**

For many types of operations, NumPy provides a convenient interface into just this kind of statically typed, compiled routine. This is known as a vectorized operation. This can be accomplished by simply performing an operation on the array, which will then be applied to each element. This vectorized approach is designed to push the loop into the compiled layer that underlies NumPy, leading to much faster execution.

Compare the results of the following two:

Looking at the execution time for our big array, we see that it completes orders of magnitude faster than the Python loop:

Vectorized operations in NumPy are implemented via ufuncs, whose main purpose is to quickly execute repeated operations on values in NumPy arrays. Ufuncs are extremely flexible – before we saw an operation between a scalar and an array, but we can also operate between two arrays:

And ufunc operations are not limited to one-dimensional arrays–they can also act on multi-dimensional arrays as well:

Computations using vectorization through ufuncs are nearly always more efficient than their counterpart implemented using Python loops, especially as the arrays grow in size. Any time you see such a loop in a Python script, you should consider whether it can be replaced with a vectorized expression.

Continua 😊

## Trackbacks

[…] da qui con le ufunc, […]

[…] For more information on the many available universal functions, refer to Computation on NumPy Arrays: Universal Functions, [qui]. […]

[…] inefficient, both from the standpoint of time writing code and time computing the result. We saw [qui] that NumPy’s ufuncs can be used in place of loops to do fast element-wise arithmetic […]

[…] from NumPy, and the ufuncs that we introduced in Computation on NumPy Arrays: Universal Functions [qui] are key to […]

[…] Because of the uniform type in NumPy datetime64 arrays, this type of operation can be accomplished much more quickly than if we were working directly with Python’s datetime objects, especially as arrays get large (we introduced this type of vectorization in Computation on NumPy Arrays: Universal Functions) [qui]. […]

[…] discussed in Computation on NumPy Arrays: Universal Functions [qui], this is much faster than doing the addition via a Python loop or […]