Julia has a system for promoting arguments of mathematical operators to a common type, which has been mentioned in various other sections, including Integers and Floating-Point Numbers, Mathematical Operations and Elementary Functions, Types, and Methods. In this section, we explain how this promotion system works, as well as how to extend it to new types and apply it to functions besides built-in mathematical operators. Traditionally, programming languages fall into two camps with respect to promotion of arithmetic arguments:

- Automatic promotion for built-in arithmetic types and operators. In most languages, built-in numeric types, when used as operands to arithmetic operators with infix syntax, such as
,`+`

,`-`

, and`*`

, are automatically promoted to a common type to produce the expected results. C, Java, Perl, and Python, to name a few, all correctly compute the sum`/`

as the floating-point value`1 + 1.5`

, even though one of the operands to`2.5`

is an integer. These systems are convenient and designed carefully enough that they are generally all-but-invisible to the programmer: hardly anyone consciously thinks of this promotion taking place when writing such an expression, but compilers and interpreters must perform conversion before addition since integers and floating-point values cannot be added as-is. Complex rules for such automatic conversions are thus inevitably part of specifications and implementations for such languages.`+`

- No automatic promotion. This camp includes Ada and ML – very “strict” statically typed languages. In these languages, every conversion must be explicitly specified by the programmer. Thus, the example expression
would be a compilation error in both Ada and ML. Instead one must write`1 + 1.5`

, explicitly converting the integer`real(1) + 1.5`

to a floating-point value before performing addition. Explicit conversion everywhere is so inconvenient, however, that even Ada has some degree of automatic conversion: integer literals are promoted to the expected integer type automatically, and floating-point literals are similarly promoted to appropriate floating-point types.`1`

In a sense, Julia falls into the “no automatic promotion” category: mathematical operators are just functions with special syntax, and the arguments of functions are never automatically converted. However, one may observe that applying mathematical operations to a wide variety of mixed argument types is just an extreme case of polymorphic multiple dispatch – something which Julia’s dispatch and type systems are particularly well-suited to handle. “Automatic” promotion of mathematical operands simply emerges as a special application: Julia comes with pre-defined catch-all dispatch rules for mathematical operators, invoked when no specific implementation exists for some combination of operand types. These catch-all rules first promote all operands to a common type using user-definable promotion rules, and then invoke a specialized implementation of the operator in question for the resulting values, now of the same type. User-defined types can easily participate in this promotion system by defining methods for conversion to and from other types, and providing a handful of promotion rules defining what types they should promote to when mixed with other types.

**Conversione**

Conversion of values to various types is performed by the ** convert** function. The

**function generally takes two arguments: the first is a type object while the second is a value to convert to that type; the returned value is the value converted to an instance of given type. The simplest way to understand this function is to see it in action:**

`convert`

Conversion isn’t always possible, in which case a no method error is thrown indicating that convert doesn’t know how to perform the requested conversion:

Some languages consider parsing strings as numbers or formatting numbers as strings to be conversions (many dynamic languages will even perform conversion for you automatically), however Julia does not: even though some strings can be parsed as numbers, most strings are not valid representations of numbers, and only a very limited subset of them are. Therefore in Julia the dedicated ** parse()** function must be used to perform this operation, making it more explicit.

**Definire nuove conversioni**

To define a new conversion, simply provide a new method for ** convert()**. That’s really all there is to it. For example, the method to convert a real number to a boolean is this:

`convert(::Type{Bool}, x::Real) = x==0 ? false : x==1 \`

` ? true : throw(InexactError())`

The type of the first argument of this method is a singleton type, ** Type{Bool}**, the only instance of which is

**. Thus, this method is only invoked when the first argument is the type value**

`Bool`

**. Notice the syntax used for the first argument: the argument name is omitted prior to the**

`Bool`

**symbol, and only the type is given. This is the syntax in Julia for a function argument whose type is specified but whose value is never used in the function body. In this example, since the type is a singleton, there would never be any reason to use its value within the body. When invoked, the method determines whether a numeric value is true or false as a boolean, by comparing it to one and zero:**

`::`

The method signatures for conversion methods are often quite a bit more involved than this example, especially for parametric types. The example above is meant to be pedagogical, and is not the actual Julia behaviour. This is the actual implementation in Julia:

`convert(::Type{T}, z::Complex) where {T<:Real} =`

`(imag(z) == 0 ? convert(T, real(z)) : throw(InexactError()))`

**Case study: conversioni di** `Rational`

To continue our case study of Julia’s ** Rational** type, here are the conversions declared in

**, right after the declaration of the type and its constructors:**

`rational.jl`

`convert(::Type{Rational{T}}, x::Rational) where {T<:Integer} = Rational(convert(T,x.num),convert(T,x.den)) convert(::Type{Rational{T}}, x::Integer) where {T<:Integer} = Rational(convert(T,x), convert(T,1)) function convert(::Type{Rational{T}}, x::AbstractFloat, tol::Real) where T<:Integer if isnan(x); return zero(T)//zero(T); end if isinf(x); return sign(x)//zero(T); end y = x a = d = one(T) b = c = zero(T) while true f = convert(T,round(y)); y -= f a, b, c, d = f*a+c, f*b+d, a, b if y == 0 || abs(a/b-x) <= tol return a//b end y = 1/y end end convert(rt::Type{Rational{T}}, x::AbstractFloat) where {T<:Integer} = convert(rt,x,eps(x)) convert(::Type{T}, x::Rational) where {T<:AbstractFloat} = convert(T,x.num)/convert(T,x.den) convert(::Type{T}, x::Rational) where {T<:Integer} = div(convert(T,x.num),convert(T,x.den))`

The initial four convert methods provide conversions to rational types. The first method converts one type of rational to another type of rational by converting the numerator and denominator to the appropriate integer type. The second method does the same conversion for integers by taking the denominator to be 1. The third method implements a standard algorithm for approximating a floating-point number by a ratio of integers to within a given tolerance, and the fourth method applies it, using machine ** epsilon** at the given value as the threshold. In general, one should have

**.**

`a//b == convert(Rational{Int64}, a/b)`

The last two convert methods provide conversions from rational types to floating-point and integer types. To convert to floating point, one simply converts both numerator and denominator to that floating point type and then divides. To convert to integer, one can use the div operator for truncated integer division (rounded towards zero).

## Trackback

[…] da qui, copio […]

[…] constructs a 1-d array (vector) of its arguments. If all arguments have a common promotion type [qui] then they get converted to that type using […]