Julia – 97 – Eseguire codice C e Fortran – 7

Continuo da qui, copio qui.

Specifiche per funzioni non costanti
A (name, library) function specification must be a constant expression. However, it is possible to use computed values as function names by staging through eval as follows:

@eval ccall(($(string("a", "b")), "lib"), ...

This expression constructs a name using string, then substitutes this name into a new ccall expression, which is then evaluated. Keep in mind that eval only operates at the top level, so within this expression local variables will not be available (unless their values are substituted with $). For this reason, eval is typically only used to form top-level definitions, for example when wrapping libraries that contain many similar functions.

If your usage is more dynamic, use indirect calls as described in the next section.

Chiamate indirette
The first argument to ccall can also be an expression evaluated at run time. In this case, the expression must evaluate to a Ptr, which will be used as the address of the native function to call. This behavior occurs when the first ccall argument contains references to non-constants, such as local variables, function arguments, or non-constant globals.

For example, you might look up the function via dlsym, then cache it in a global variable for that session. For example:

macro dlsym(func, lib)
    z, zlocal = gensym(string(func)), gensym()
    eval(current_module(), :(global $z = C_NULL))
    z = esc(z)
        let $zlocal::Ptr{Void} = $z::Ptr{Void}
            if $zlocal == C_NULL
                $zlocal = dlsym($(esc(lib))::Ptr{Void}, $(esc(func)))
                global $z = $zlocal

Convenzioni di chiamata
The second argument to ccall can optionally be a calling convention specifier (immediately preceding return type). Without any specifier, the platform-default C calling convention is used. Other supported conventions are: stdcall, cdecl, fastcall, and thiscall. For example (from base/libc.jl) we see the same gethostnameccall as above, but with the correct signature for Windows:

hn = Vector{UInt8}(256)
err = ccall(:gethostname, stdcall, Int32, (Ptr{UInt8}, UInt32), hn, length(hn))

There is one additional special calling convention llvmcall, which allows inserting calls to LLVM intrinsics directly. This can be especially useful when targeting unusual platforms such as GPGPUs. For example, for CUDA, we need to be able to read the thread index:

ccall("llvm.nvvm.read.ptx.sreg.tid.x", llvmcall, Int32, ())

As with any ccall, it is essential to get the argument signature exactly correct. Also, note that there is no compatibility layer that ensures the intrinsic makes sense and works on the current target, unlike the equivalent Julia functions exposed by Core.Intrinsics.

Accedere a variabili globali
Global variables exported by native libraries can be accessed by name using the cglobal() function. The arguments to cglobal() are a symbol specification identical to that used by ccall, and a type describing the value stored in the variable:

julia> cglobal((:errno, :libc), Int32)
Ptr{Int32} @0x00007f418d0816b8

The result is a pointer giving the address of the value. The value can be manipulated through this pointer using unsafe_load() and unsafe_store!().

Accedere a dati tramite pointers
The following methods are described as “unsafe” because a bad pointer or type declaration can cause Julia to terminate abruptly.

Given a Ptr{T}, the contents of type T can generally be copied from the referenced memory into a Julia object using unsafe_load(ptr, [index]). The index argument is optional (default is 1), and follows the Julia-convention of 1-based indexing. This function is intentionally similar to the behavior of getindex() and setindex!() (e.g. [] access syntax).

The return value will be a new object initialized to contain a copy of the contents of the referenced memory. The referenced memory can safely be freed or released.

If T is Any, then the memory is assumed to contain a reference to a Julia object (a jl_value_t*), the result will be a reference to this object, and the object will not be copied. You must be careful in this case to ensure that the object was always visible to the garbage collector (pointers do not count, but the new reference does) to ensure the memory is not prematurely freed. Note that if the object was not originally allocated by Julia, the new object will never be finalized by Julia’s garbage collector. If the Ptr itself is actually a jl_value_t*, it can be converted back to a Julia object reference by unsafe_pointer_to_objref(ptr). (Julia values v can be converted to jl_value_t* pointers, as Ptr{Void}, by calling pointer_from_objref(v).)

The reverse operation (writing data to a Ptr{T}), can be performed using unsafe_store!(ptr, value, [index]). Currently, this is only supported for primitive types or other pointer-free (isbits) immutable struct types.

Any operation that throws an error is probably currently unimplemented and should be posted as a bug so that it can be resolved.

If the pointer of interest is a plain-data array (primitive type or immutable struct), the function unsafe_wrap(Array, ptr,dims,[own]) may be more useful. The final parameter should be true if Julia should “take ownership” of the underlying buffer and call free(ptr) when the returned Array object is finalized. If the own parameter is omitted or false, the caller must ensure the buffer remains in existence until all access is complete.

Arithmetic on the Ptr type in Julia (e.g. using +) does not behave the same as C’s pointer arithmetic. Adding an integer to a Ptr in Julia always moves the pointer by some number of bytes, not elements. This way, the address values obtained from pointer arithmetic do not depend on the element types of pointers.

Some C libraries execute their callbacks from a different thread, and since Julia isn’t thread-safe you’ll need to take some extra precautions. In particular, you’ll need to set up a two-layered system: the C callback should only schedule (via Julia’s event loop) the execution of your “real” callback. To do this, create a AsyncCondition object and wait on it:

cond = Base.AsyncCondition()

The callback you pass to C should only execute a ccall to :uv_async_send, passing cond.handle as the argument, taking care to avoid any allocations or other interactions with the Julia runtime.

Note that events may be coalesced, so multiple calls to uv_async_send may result in a single wakeup notification to the condition.

Maggiori informazioni sulle callabcks
For more details on how to pass callbacks to C libraries, see this blog post.

For direct C++ interfacing, see the Cxx package. For tools to create C++ bindings, see the CxxWrap package.

Fine del capitolo. Con la speranza che di non doverlo usare mai.


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